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      酷兔英語

      章節正文

      Ⅰ 動詞的時態

      英語共有16種時態,根據近幾年曝光的四、六級考卷分析, 時態測試重點主要有:完成時態——現在完成時、過去完成時、將來完成時;進行時態——現在進行時、過去進行時、將來進行時、完成進行時;一般時態。

          一、一般時態

      1、一般現在時

          (1)一般現在時表示沒有時限的持久存在的動作或狀態或現階段反復發生的動作或狀態,常和副詞 usuallyoftenalways sometimes regularlynearoccasionallyevery year, every week 等連用。例如:

          1The moon moves round the earth..

          2Mr. Smith travels to work by bus every day.

         2)在由afteruntilbeforeoncewheneven ifin caseas long asas soon asthe moment 以及 ifunless 等引導的時間狀語從句或條件狀語從句中,通常用一般現在時代替將來時。例如:

         1I will tell him the news as soon as I see him.

         2I will not go to countryside if it rains tomorrow.

        3)某些表示起始的動詞,可用一般現在時表示按規定、計劃或安排要發生的動作,這類動詞有:begocomestartdepartarrivebeginleave 等。例如:

       1The plane leaves at three sharp.

       2The new teachers arrive tomorrow.

        4)在由whywhatwherewhoeverwhothatas 等引導的從句中,也常用一般現在時代替將來時。例如:

        1Free tickets will be given to whoever comes first.

        2Youll probably be in the same train as I am tomorrow.

          2.一般過去時

         1)表示過去某一特定時間所發生的、可完成的動作或狀態,常與表示確切過去時間的詞、短語或從句連用。例如:

      We went to the pictures last night and saw a very interesting film.

         2)表示過去習慣性動作。例如:

          1He always went to class last.

          2I used to do my homework in the library.

         (注意與be used to doing短語的區別)

          3.一般將來時

          1)表示將來打算進行或期待發生的動作或狀態。例如:

      I shall graduate next year.

          2)幾種替代形式:

          1be going to +v在口語中廣泛使用,表示準備做或將發生的事情。例如:

      Im going to buy a house when weve saved enough money.

          2be to +v表示計劃安排要做的事,具有“必要”的強制性意義。例如:

      I am to play tennis this afternoon.

          3be about to +v表示即將發生的事情。例如:

      He was about to start.

          4be due to +v表示預先確定了的事, 必定發生的事。例如:

      The train is due to depart in ten minutes.

          5be on the point/verge of +v ing 強調即將發生的某種事態。例如:

          The baby was on the point of crying when her mother finally came home.

          二、進行時態

          1.現在進行時

         1)表示現在正在進行的動作,常與nowright nowat the motherfor the time beingfor the present等連用。例如:

          Dont disturb her. She is reading a newspaper now.

         2)表示現階段經常發生的動作, 常與alwayscontinuallyforeverconstantly等連用。例如:

          My father is forever criticizing me.

         3)表示根據計劃或安排在最近要進行的事情。具有這種語法功能的動詞僅限于過渡性動詞。即表示從一個狀態或位置轉移到另一個狀態或位置上去的動詞。常用的有:gocomeleavestartarrivereturn等。例如:

          They are leaving for Hong Kong next month.

         4)有些動詞不能用進行時,這是一類表示“感覺,感情,存在,從屬”等的動詞。如:seehearsmelltastefeelnoticelookappear,(表示感覺的詞);hatelovefearlikewantwishpreferrefuseforgive(表示感情的動詞);beexistremainstayobtain(表示存在狀態的動詞);havepossessowncontainbelongconsist ofform(表示占有與從屬的動詞);understandknowbelievethinkdoubtforgetremember(表示思考理解的動詞)。但是如果它們詞義改變,便也可用進行時態。例如:

          1Tom looks pale. Whats wrong with him?

          look 在此為聯系動詞,意為“顯得,看上去”)

          2Tom is looking for his books.

          look 在此為實義動詞,意為“尋找”)

          2. 過去進行時

          過去進行時表示一個過去的動作發生時或發生后,另一個過去的動作正在進行,或表示過去反復的習慣,常與alwayscontinuallyconstantly等動詞連用。例如:

          1We were discussing the matter when the headmaster entered.

      2Whenever I visited him, he was always writing at the desk.

          3. 將來進行時

          將來進行時主要表示將來某一時刻正在進行的動作,或表示要在將來某一時刻開始,并繼續下去的動作。常用來表示禮貌的詢問、請求等。例如:

          1This time next day they will be sitting in the cinema.

          2What will you be doing at six tomorrow evening?

          4. 完成進行時

          (現在、過去、將來)完成進行時是(現在、過去、將來)完成時的強調形式,將放在完成時態部分講述。

          三、完成時態

          完成時態通常表示已完成或從事的動作。它可分為:

          1. 現在完成時

          1)現在完成時用來表示對目前狀況仍有影響的,剛剛完成的動作(常與yetalreadyjust連用),或者過去某一時刻發生的,持續到現在的情況(常與forsince連用)。例如:

      1I have just finished my homework.

          2Mary has been ill for three days.

          2)常與現在完成時連用的時間狀語有:since, for, during, over等引導出的短語;副詞already, yet, just, ever, now, before, often, lately, recently等;狀語詞組this week (morning, month, year), so far, up to now, many times, up to the present等。例如:

          1I havent been there for five years.

      2So far, she hasnt enjoyed the summer vacation.

      3There have been a lot of changes since 1978.

      3)完成時態可用在下列結構中:

      This (That, It) is (was) the first (second) time +定語從句;This (That, It) is (was) the only (last) + n +定語從句;This (That, It) is (was) +形容詞最高級+ n +定語從句。如果主句的謂語動詞是一般現在時,從句的謂語動詞通常用現在完成時;如果主句謂語動詞是一般過去時,從句謂語動詞通常用過去完成時。例如:

         1This is one of the rarest questions that have ever been raised at such a meeting.

         2There was a knock at the door. It was the second time someone had interrupted me that evening.

         2. 過去完成時

         1)表示過去某時間前已經發生的動作或情況,這個過去的時間可以用bybefore等介詞短語或一個時間狀語從句來表示;或者表示一個動作在另一個過去動作之前已經完成。例如:

         1We had just had our breakfast when Tom came in.

         2By the end of last year they had turned out 5, 000 bicycles.

         2)動詞expect, hope, mean, intend, plan, suppose, wish, want, desire等用過去完成時,表示過去的希望、預期、意圖或愿望等沒有實現。例如:

         I had meant to take a good holiday this year, but I wasnt able to get away.

         另外兩種表示“過去想做而未做的事”的表達方式是:

         1was / were + to have done sth, 例如:

         We were to have come yesterday, but we couldnt.

         2intended (expected, hope, meant, planned, supposed, wished, wanted, desired) + to have done sth, 例如:

         I meant to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so.

         3)過去完成時常用于以下固定句型:

         1hardly, scarcely, barely + 過去完成時+ when + 過去時。例如:

         Hardly had I got on the bus when it started to move.

         2no sooner +過去完成時+ than +過去時。例如:

         No sooner had I gone out than he came to see me.

         3by (the end of ) +過去時間,主句中謂語動詞用過去完成時。例如:

         The experiment had been finished by 4 oclock yesterday afternoon.

         3. 將來完成時

         將來完成時表示在將來某一時刻將完成或在另一個未來的動作發生之前已經完成的動作;也可以用來表示一種猜測。常與將來完成時連用的時間狀語有:by (the time / the end of ) + 表示將來時間的短語和句子;before (the end of ) + 表示將來時間的詞語或句子;when, after等加上表示將來動作的句子等。例如:

         1By this time tomorrow you will have arrived in Shanghai.

         2I shall have finished this composition before 9 oclock.

         3When we get on the railway station, the train will probably have left.

         4. 完成進行時

         完成進行時是完成時的強調形式,有現在完成進行時,過去完成進行時,將來完成進行時。

         1)現在完成進行時表示過去某一時刻之前開始的動作或狀態一直延續到過去某一時刻。例如:

         I have been looking for my lost book for three days, but I still havent found it.

         2)過去完成進行時表示過去某一時刻之前開始的動作或狀態一直延續到過去某一時刻。例如:

         It had been raining cats and dogs for over a week and the downpour had caused landslides in many places.

         3)將來完成進行時表示在將來某一時刻之前開始的一個動作或狀態一直延續到將來某一時刻。例如:

          By the time you arrive tonight, she will have been typing for hours.

         四、時態一致

         時態一致是英語四、六級考試的一個重要內容。通常應由主句謂語的時態決定從句的謂語時態。一般原則是:

          1、當主句謂語使用現在時或將來時,從句的謂語根據具體情況使用任何時態

          He says that he lives in Wuhan.

          We hope that there will be many people at your party today.

          Did you hear that Bill finally sold the house?Yes, but I dont know who bought it.

          Theres a lot of excitement on the street.

          There certainly is. Do you suppose the astronauts have returned?

          2、當主句謂語使用過去時的時候,從句的謂語必須使用過去范圍的時態

          He said he was writing a novel.

          The teacher wanted to know when we would finish the experiment.

          He said his father had been an engineer.

          3、當從句是表示沒有時間概念的真理時,從句的謂語應使用一般現在時。例如:

          The teacher told them since light travels faster than sound, lightning appears to go before thunder.

          注:在此種情況下,即使主句謂語用了過去式的各種時態,從句謂語也應用一般現在時。

          4、從句謂語只能用虛擬語氣的情況

          利用時態一致原則確定從句動詞時態時,還應注意,若主語動詞是表示命令、請求、要求、建議、勸告等的動詞,從句謂語只能用虛擬語氣,不能遵循時態一致原則。例如:

          We insisted that we do it ourselves.

      Ⅱ 動詞的語態

          語態也是動詞的一種形式,英語有兩種語態:主動語態和被動語態。主動語態表示主語是動作的執行者,而被動語態表示主語是動作的承受者。

          1We use electricity to run machines.  (主動語態)

          2Electricity is used to run machines.  (被動語態)

          1. 不能用于被動語態的動詞和短語

          1)在英語中,不及物動詞不能用于被動語態,但有些不及物動詞(包括短語)容易引起誤用。如:appear, belong, belong, die, escape, fall, happen, last, remain, succeed, occur, come true, take place, consist of

          2)某些表示狀態或特征的及物動詞,如:become, contain, cost, fit, have, resemble, suit也沒有被動語態。

          2. 被動語態的時態形式

          常用的被動語態有表1 所列的幾種時態形式。

      1

       

      時間    一般時               進行時            完成時

      現在   am asked          am being asked    

             is asked          is being asked

             are asked         are being asked

      過去

             was be asked      was being asked

             were be asked     were being asked

      將來   shall be asked                       shall have been asked

             will be asked                        will have been asked

       

      過去   should be asked                       should have been asked

      將來   would be asked                       would have been asked

       

          3. 短語動詞的被動語態

          短語動詞轉換為被動語態時,通常被看作是一個動詞,后面的介詞或副詞不能拆開或省略。例如:

          1So far no correct conclusion has arrived at.

          2All the rubbish should be got rid of.

          4.“get + -ed分詞”的被動語態

          get + -ed分詞”結構強調動作的結果,而非動作本身,常用來表示突發性的,出乎意料的偶然事件。例如:

          The boy got hurt on his way home from work.

          另外,“get + -ed分詞”還可用于談論為自己做的事,是主動的行為而不是被動的行為。例如:

          get dressed(穿衣服)     get divorced(離婚)

          get engaged(訂婚)      get confused(迷惑不解)

          get lost(迷路)          get washed(洗臉)

          get married(結婚)

          5. 能帶兩個賓語和復合賓語的動詞改為被動語態

          1) 能帶兩個賓語的動詞改為被動語態時,一次只能由一個賓語作主語,另一個賓語被保留下來。例如:

          1We showed the visitors our new products.(主動語態)

          2The visitors were shown our new products.(被動語態)

          3Our new products were shown to the visitors.(被動語態)

          2)能帶復合賓語的動詞改為被動語態時,原來的賓語補足語變為主語補足語。例如:

          1The teacher appointed him League secretary.(主動語態)

          2He was appointed League secretary.(被動語態)

          6. 被動語態與系表結構的區別

          1The novel was well written.(系表結構)

          2The novel was written by Diskens.(被動語態)

          7. 少數動詞的主動語態有時有被動的意思

          1The book is selling remarkably well.

          2The song sounds very beautiful.

          能這樣用的動詞還有read(讀起來),clean(擦起來),wash(洗起來),write(寫起來)。

          3My watch needs cleaning. (= My watch needs to be cleaned).

          能像need這樣用的動詞還有:want, require, deserve, do, owe, bind等。

          4The meat is cooking.

          5The book written by the professor is printing.

       

       


      生詞表:
    4. disturb [di´st?:b] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  vt.擾亂;使不安;打亂   (初中英語單詞)
    5. reading [´ri:di?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.(閱)讀;朗讀;讀物   (初中英語單詞)
    6. writing [´raiti?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.書寫;寫作;書法   (初中英語單詞)
    7. lately [´leitli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.近來,不久前   (初中英語單詞)
    8. holiday [´h?lidi] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.假日,假期,節日   (初中英語單詞)
    9. yesterday [´jest?di] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.&ad.昨天;前不久   (初中英語單詞)
    10. supposed [s?´p?uzd] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.想象的;假定的   (初中英語單詞)
    11. barely [´be?li] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.公開地;僅僅   (初中英語單詞)
    12. excitement [ik´saitm?nt] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.興奮;騷動;煽動   (初中英語單詞)
    13. lightning [´laitni?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.閃電 a.突然的   (初中英語單詞)
    14. contain [k?n´tein] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  v.包含;容納;抑制   (初中英語單詞)
    15. resemble [ri´zemb?l] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  vt.類似,象   (初中英語單詞)
    16. conclusion [k?n´klu:??n] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.結束;結論;推論   (初中英語單詞)
    17. league [li:g] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.同盟;社團   (初中英語單詞)
    18. deserve [di´z?:v] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  v.應受;值得   (初中英語單詞)
    19. whoever [hu:´ev?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  pron.任何人,無論誰   (高中英語單詞)
    20. tennis [´tenis] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.網球(運動)   (高中英語單詞)
    21. composition [,k?mp?´zi??n] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.寫作;作曲;作品   (高中英語單詞)
    22. electricity [i,lek´trisiti] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.電;電學;電流   (高中英語單詞)
    23. countryside [´k?ntrisaid] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.鄉下,農村   (英語四級單詞)
    24. rubbish [´r?bi?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.垃圾;碎屑;廢話   (英語四級單詞)
    25. remarkably [ri´mɑ:k?bli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.非凡地;顯著地   (英語四級單詞)



    26. 章節正文
      亚洲久久国产视频在线视频