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      酷兔英語

      章節正文

      Ⅰ 名  

          名詞可分為普通名詞和專有名詞。 在普通名詞中個體名詞和集體名詞為可數名詞,物質名詞和抽象名詞為不可數名詞。

          一、名詞的數

          可數名詞有單、復數之分, 不可數名詞一般沒有復數形式。

          1.不規則名詞單數變為復數的方法

          1)以o結尾的詞多數加es,例如:

          heroheroes  potatopotatoes  tomatotomatoes

          注:下面兩類只加s

          1) 詞尾為兩個元音字母的詞,例如:

          bamboobamboos  studiostudios  radioradios

          2) 某些外來詞,例如:

          photophotos  pianopianos  kilokilos

          (2) 部分以字母f結尾的單詞只加s,例如:

          roofroofs  cliffcliffs  chiefchiefs

          beliefbeliefs  gulfgulfs  hoofhoofs

          (3) 保持古英語名詞復數變化形式,例如:

          manmen  oxoxen  footfeet

          (4) 保持外來語原來的變化形式,例如:

          phenomenonphenomena  criterioncriteria

          (5) 有些名詞單復數同形,例如:

          sheep,  means,  aircraft,  deer,  fish,  Japanese,  Chinese  species,  series,  works (工廠、著作)

          2. 合成名詞的復數構成法

          (1) 合成名詞變復數,一般將它所含的主體名詞變為復數,

      如:

          looker-onlookers-on (旁觀者)

          commander-in-chiefcommanders-in-chief (總司令)

          (2) 如果合成名詞里不含名詞,它的復數形式就在這合成詞的詞尾加s,例如:

          hold-allhold-alls (旅行袋)

          never-do-wellnever-do-wells (不成器的人)

          此外還有將所含名詞全部變復數的,例如:man-servantmen-servants,  woman  teacherwomen  teachers

          3. 關于名詞數的幾點說明

          (1) 有些名詞形式上是復數,意義上卻是單數,作主語時,謂語動詞要用復數。例如:

          overalls,  shorts,  scissors,  spectacles,  trousers,  shoes,  clothes,  stockings,  tongs,  tweezers

          注:此類詞一般表示的是由兩部分組成的物品,可用some修飾。單數常用a pair of修飾,復數用pairs of修飾,clothes除外。

          (2) 有些名詞形式上是復數,實際意義上是單數,作主語時,

      謂語動詞要有單數形式。例如:

          news,  means,  series,  crossroads (十字路口)

          (3) 有些名詞只有復數形式,沒有單數形式,其復數形式有時可以表示特別的意思,作主語時,謂語動詞要用復數。例如:

          goods (貨物), effects (財物), papers (文件), looks (外貌), manners

      (禮貌), arms (武器), riches (財富)

          (4) s結尾的學科名稱以及疾病名稱,常用作單數,作主語時,謂語動詞用單數形式。例如:

          electronics,  mathematics,  measles (麻疹), phonetics

          (5) 有些集合名詞是單數形式,作主語時,謂語動詞用復數形式。例如:

          police,  people,  cattle,  militia,  mankind

          (6) 大多數集合名詞,可用作單數(指整體),也可用作復數(指集體的成員),作主語時,謂語動詞視具體情況而定。例如:

          audience,  group,  government,  public,  family,  crowd,  class,  team,  army,  union,  committee,  crew

          (7) 不可數名詞前不能直接用數詞,而應該加上表示單位的量詞詞組。例如:

          a piece of news, two cakes of soap, a sheet of paper, three pieces of chalk

          (8) 不可數名詞表示若干類或表示數量之多,具有復數形式。例如:

          steelsteels (各類鋼)  snowsnows (積雪)

          She told him of all her hopes and fears. (她和他談了她的種種希望和疑慮。)

          (9) 有些抽象名詞表示具體的東西,可以用復數形式。例如:

          1) When difficulties arise in one place, aids come from everywhere. (一方有難,八方支援。)

          2) After many failures, they finally succeeded. (他們經歷多次失敗,終于取得成功。)

          二、名詞的格

          名詞所有格,表示所有關系,主要用于表示有生命東西的名詞,一般形式是在詞尾加s來表示。

          1. 單數名詞的所有格

          單數名詞的所有格一般是在單數名詞后面加s。例如:Xiao Lis telephone number  Xiao Lis sisters husbands mother

          2. 復數名詞的所有格

          s (es) 結尾的復數名詞后,只加,例如:

          the teachers reading-room  the workers club

          3. 表示無生命東西的名詞也可用所有格

          (1) 用在表示時間、距離、重量或貨幣單位的名詞上,例如:

          an hours walk  a stones throw (一箭之遠)

          a pounds weight

          (2) 用在表示太陽、月亮、地球、船只、國家、城市、地方等的名詞上,例如:

          the suns rays  the ships cabin  the earths surface

          (3) 在某些習慣用語中,例如:

          to ones hearts content (盡情)

          at ones wits end (智窮才竭)

          4.所有格后的名詞可省略

          (1) 所有格所修飾的名詞,如果前面已經提到過,為避免重復,可以省略。例如:

          This is a dictionary of mine, not comrade Lis.

          (2) 名詞所有格用以指店鋪或某人的家時,其后的名詞常常省略而不用。例如:

          a fruiterers (一家水果店)  the Lius (劉家)

          5.關于名詞詞組的所有格

          (1) 如果兩人共有的東西或共同創建的事業,把兩人視為整體,在最后一個名詞的后面加s; 如果不是共有的,則須分別加s。例如:

          Tom and Marys new invention (湯姆和瑪麗的新發明)

          Johns and Dicks mothers (約翰的母親和迪克的母親)

          (2) 有時詞組的最后一個詞不是名詞,但此詞組是不可分割的,則s加在最后一個詞上。例如:

          somebody elses book  an hour or twos time

          (3) 如有同位語,s則加在表示同位語的詞上。例如:

          before his classmate Wang Lings arrival

          6. 一般用of短語表示無生命的名詞的所有關系

          例如:the door of the classroom  the title of the song

          7. 表示有生命的名詞的所有關系是否用of短語視情況而定

          (1) 名詞前有不定冠詞或代詞修飾,用of短語表示所有關系。例如:

          a poem of Tom  these advantages of Wang Lan

          (2) 名詞較長,為保持平衡,用of短語表示所有關系。例如:

          the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin

          (3) 名詞有定語或從句修飾,用of短語表示所有關系。例如:

          1Do you know the name of the girl working there?

          2He is the father or the girl whom we met last night.

          8. 名詞的雙重所有格

          of +名詞所有格或名詞性物主代詞”稱為雙重所有格。它通常用在所修飾的名詞前有表示數量的詞(a, two, some, any, no, many, a few 等)或有指示代詞的情況下,用以表達部分觀念或某種感情色彩。例如:

          1He is a friend of my fathers.

          2There is no fault of his.

          3That performance of the students was wonderful.

          類似的結構還有of ones own。例如:

          We wish we had a house of our own.

          三、名詞用作形容詞

          1.一個名詞修飾另一個名詞

         1)第一個名詞說明第二個名詞的來源、出處、使用或發生的地點和時間。例如:

          a traffic jam  a newspaper article  the office party  afternoon tea  a night school  a day bed

          注:當談到具體的時間時要用s所有格,例如:

          todays newspaper  tomorrows weather

          (2) 第一個名詞說明第二個名詞是由什么組成的。例如:

          an iron bridge  a two-room flat

          a puzzle book (一本難題集)

          (3) 第一個名詞說明第二個名詞是干什么的,在什么情況下起作用或與什么有關系(有時兩個名詞構成一個合成詞)。例如:

          a book-case  a police station  holiday plans

          a war story (一個描寫戰爭的故事)

          (4) 第二個名詞提到的是一項活動,第一個名詞是活動中的承受者(即直接賓語)。例如:

          adult education  an animal trainer (馴獸師)

          (5) 第二個名詞涉及第一個名詞的一部分。例如:

          the car door  the river bank  the table leg

          注:1)此種情況也可用of短語,例如:

          the door of the car  the leg of the table

          2)一般情況下,如果第一個名詞是有生命的,我們用s所有格來表示這種概念。例如:

          a mans leg  a boys arm  a cows horn

          2. 名詞連綴用作形容詞

          兩個、三個或更多的名詞都可以作為形容詞來用,這種結構常見于報紙標題里。例如:

          1road accident research center (交通事故研究中心)

          2oil production costs (石油生產的成本)

          3.名詞作形容詞時數的變化

          (1) 名詞作形容詞時,一般都是用單數形式,即使意思是復數,通常也用單數形式。例如:

          a ticket office  a shoe shop  trouser pockets

          注:有一些例外.sports, accounts, arms, customsclothes用作形容詞時沒什么變化。例如:

          a sports meeting  a customs officer  a clothes shop  arms production

          (2) ics結尾的單數名詞用作形容詞沒有任何變化。例如:

          a physics teacher  an economics degree

          (3) 帶有數字的名詞詞組作形容詞時,名詞也用單數形式。例如:

          a two-day holiday  a five-mile walk  two-pound chicken

      Ⅱ 代  

          代詞可分為九類:人稱代詞、物主代詞、反身代詞、相互代詞、指示代詞、疑問代詞、關系代詞、連接代詞、不定代詞。本節主要討論在六級考試中常出現的考點。

          一、人稱代詞

          1.人稱代詞的主要用途是用來代替名詞

          在復合句的從句中或在介詞短語中,常用代詞來代替句中相應的名詞。例如:

          1China will always do what she has promised to do.

          2In his songs, Nieh Erh aroused the patriotic feelings of the people.

          2.人稱代詞作表語用賓格

          人稱代詞作表語時,用賓格較多,特別是在口語中。例如:

          1)“Whos there?” “Its me.

          2I wouldnt do that if I were her.

          3.人稱代詞在強調句式中的格

          在強調句式中強調主語常用代詞的主格,強調賓語用賓格。例如:

          1It was we boys who are to give orders.

          2It is her that we are talking about.

          4weus可以包括或者排除聽話的人

          1Shall we go and have a drink? (we包括聽話的人)

          2Were going for a drink. Would you like to come with us? (we排除聽話的人)

          3Let us go for a walk, shall we? (us包括聽話的人)

          4Lets go for a walk, will you? (us排除聽話的人)

          二、物主代詞

          物主代詞是表示所有關系的,有形容詞型和名詞型兩種。

          關于物主代詞應注意以下兩點:

          (1) 物主代詞不能和別的限定詞(如冠詞或指示代詞)同時使用。例如:

          不能說a my friend, the my uncle the mine

          (2) 在談到打擊、疼痛以及其他類似情況時,常用the代替物主代詞,與表示身體某部分的名稱連用。例如:

          1The tomato hit him in the nose.

          2She had a pain in the shoulder.

          3We took my sister by the arm.

          4She looked me in the face.

          5He was badly wounded in the leg.

          三、反身代詞

          1.反身代詞作同位語時的位置

          反身代詞作同位語時,不一定緊跟在主導詞后,可以放到句末,強調的意味最強。例如:

          The manager spoke to me himself. (經理自己親口對我說的。)

          2.介詞后面可用普通人稱代詞代替

          在所指明顯的情況下,介詞后面可以用普通人稱代詞來代替反身代詞。例如:

          (1) She took her dog with her.

          (2) She looks after her.

          3.反身代詞不能作定詞

          反身代詞不能作定語,可以用形容詞性物主代詞+own來表示這個意思。例如:

          Id like to have my own house.

          4.反身代詞還可以用于某些成語

          (1) (all) by oneself自己干的(不要別人幫忙)。例如:

          They did the experiment all by themselves.

          (2) of oneself自動地。例如:

          The enemy will not perish of himself.

          (3) for oneself替(給)自己。例如:

          You have a right to decide for yourself.

          (4) in oneself本性,本身。例如:

          This is a good idea in itself.

          (5) to oneself獨自享用。例如:

          When one dines in a restaurant one likes a table to oneself.

          (6) between ourselves私下說的話。例如:

          All this is between ourselves.

          (7) among themselves他們之間。例如:

          They had a heated discussion among themselves.

          四、相互代詞

          相互代詞是表示相互關系的一種代詞,有each otherone another

          Each other指兩者之間的相互關系,one another指兩者以上的人與事物之間的相互關系。例如:

          1Tom and Mary frequently exchange gift with each other.

          2When science, business, and art learn something of one anothers methods and goals, the world will have come closer to cultural harmony. (當科學、商業和藝術互相對彼此的方式和目的都有所了解時,世界就會變得更為協調一致。)

          3All the students in our class always care for each other.

          4We should point out one anothers/each others short-comings.

          注:each otherone another有所有格形式:each others, one anothers, 用作定語。

          Each other可拆開用。例如:Each helps the other. (互相幫助。)

          五、指示代詞

          主要有this, that, these, those以及such, same.

          1.指示代詞this, thesethat, those

          (1) this, these指較近的人或物、較近的時間,以及在說話的時刻說話者自己介入的場合,that, those則相反。例如:

          1Things are quite different in these days.

          2I prefer this to that. (我喜歡這個,不喜歡那個。)

          (2) 有時英語在前一句中提到兩種事物,在后一句中就用this, these指后者,用that, those指前者。例如:

          There are two classes of people: the selfish and the selfless. These are found in the working class, while those in the capitalists.

          (3) this, these常指下文將談及的事物,而that, those常指上文所說的事物;this, these為近指,that, those為遠指。例如:

          1This is what he said. (以下是他所說的。)

          2That is what he said. (這是他所說的。)

          3Work and play are both necessary to health; this gives us rest, and that gives us energy. (工作和游戲對健康都是必須的;游戲給我們休息,工作給我們活力。)

          (4) that, those常用來代替已說及的事物,以避免重復。例如:

          The bikes produced in Shanghai are better than those produced here.

          (1) suchsame作指示代詞,單復數同行。在句中可作主語、定語、表語、賓語等。例如:

          1It is such a wonderful film.

          2Our views are the same.

          (2) same常與the連用。例如:

          I wish you the same.

          六、不定代詞

          易混淆的常用不定代詞有:some, any; each, every; none, no; other, another; both, either, neither; both, all; one, ones

          1someany

          (1) some一般用在肯定句中,any一般用在否定句和疑問句中。例如:

          1Have you any questions?

          2I have some questions.

          (2) any用在肯定句中,意思是“任何的”。例如:

          Any help you can give will be valuable.

          (3) 在帶有定語從句的句子里,any后面一般跟that,而不跟whichwho。例如:

          Borrow any book that interests you.

          (4) anybut的意思是“除了…以外的任何一個”。例如:

          Ill go to any theatre but that one.

          (5) 在疑問句中表示勸導、拜托而期待肯定的回答時可以用some。例如:

          1May I give you some tea? (你喝茶嗎?)

          2Will you buy me some books? (請給我買幾本書好嗎?)

          (6) 在否定句中,some本身的含義是肯定的。例如:

          He never writes without making some mistakes. (他每寫什么總是有些錯誤。)

          (7) some還可用來修飾可數名詞單數,表示不確定的“某一”。例如:

          You will realize it some day. (總有一天你會明白的。)

          (8) some和可數名詞連用,表示“大約”。例如:

          It happened some twenty years ago.

          2eachevery

          (1) each表示個別的概念,著重于同類的個別性,every著重同類的共同性。例如:

          1Each of them had something to say.

          2Every player was on top form.

          (2) every只能作定語,each則可作主語、賓語、定語、同位語。例如:

          1Each man must do his best.

          2Each must do his best.

          (3) each后出現另外一個限定詞時,要用each of, 后面接復數可數名詞。例如:

          Each of my aunts gave me socks for Christmas.

          (4) 在下列習慣語中不能用each代替every。例如:

          1You have every right to say so. (你完全有權利這么說。)

          2There is every reason to think so. (那樣考慮是大有原因的。)

          3noneno

          (1) none (指人或物)是與all相對的,可作主語、賓語等。它指可數名詞時,動詞可用單數也可用復數。例如:

          1None has escaped the net.

          2None are so deaf as those that will not hear.

          (2) the, my, you, this, that等詞前面,應該用none of。例如:

          1None of my friends live near here.

          2I like none of that music.

          3None of them came in time.

          (3) none與復合不定代詞no one的比較:

          no onenone都作“沒有人”解,但略有區別。None往往有一固定范圍,如none of them, none of the students, no one沒有這種限制。例如:

          1)“Did any of my classmates come to see me?” “None.

          2)“Did any one come to see me?” “No one.

          (4) no是形容詞性的代詞,只能作定語。例如:

          No cigarette is completely harmless.

          (5) no修飾作表語的名詞,有時有特殊含義。例如:

          He is no poet. (他算不上詩人。)

          (6) no和一個名詞連用,其意思是not a或者not any。例如:

          1She had no idea what I meant.

          2Ive received no letters these days. (= Ive not received any letters these days.)

          4otheranother

          (1) other的含義是與“某一個”或“某一些”相對的“另一個”或“另一些”。other的復數形式是others, 所有格形式是othersothers。可作定語、賓語、表語,特指時前面要加冠詞the。例如:

          1I dont like this one, give me the other, please. (我不喜歡這個,請給我那個。)

          2There are other ways of doing this exercise.

          3She thinks only of others good.

          4)“Four of them are in the classroom..What about the others? (特指)

          5She has more concern for others than for herself. (泛指)

          (2) another的含義是與“某一個”不同的“另一個”、“又一個”。another的前面不能加冠詞,可作主語、賓語、定語。例如:

          One is old, another is young and the third is of middle age.

          (3) another后一般用單數名詞,如可以說another day,不能說another days。但another后面可以跟few或帶數字的復數名詞。例如:

          1Ive got another three-day holiday.

          2Theres room for another few people in the back of the bus.

          (4) the other起限定性的單數代詞的作用,表示兩個中的另一個;another是非限定的,表示多個中的另一個。例如:

          1Take the other book, not this one. (兩本書)

          2Take another book, not this one. (不止兩本書)

          注:表示特指時單數用the other,復數用the other (ones) (作定語)the others (作主語、賓語)。表示泛指時單數用another, 復數用other (ones) (作定語) others (作主語、賓語)。例如:

          1Where are the other books? (特指)

          2Six of them are his; the others are mine. (特指)

          3There are other ways of doing that experiment? (泛指)

          4Some metals are magnetic and others arent. (泛指)

          5both, eitherneither

          (1) both (兩個都)either (兩個中的任何一個)neither (兩個中任何一個都不),可以作主語、賓語、定語。both還可作同位語。例如:

          1) Both are correct.

          2) Neither is correct.

          3) Either of them is correct.

          4) Ill take them both with me.

          (2) either有時指“兩者都”(= each of two),主要用于on either side, at either end等習慣用語中。例如:

          There are houses on either side of the road.

          (3) either of 后面接名詞詞組時,名詞前須用限定詞(人稱代詞、指示代詞或冠詞),謂語動詞一般用單數。例如:

          Either of the children is quite capable of looking after the baby.

          (4) both的反義詞是neither。例如:

          1Both of us want to go.

          2Neither of us want to go.

          6. bothall

          (1) both只能概括兩個人或物,all則概括兩個以上數目的人或物。例如:

          1Both countries are socialist countries.

          2All children like ice-cream.

          (2) bothall作同位語時,放在該名詞或代詞之后。例如:

          They both went to Beijing.

          (3) bothall一般放在be動詞的后面,行為動詞的前面;謂語中有助動詞時,則置于助動詞后。例如:

          1We are both fond of music.

          2They all study very hard.

          3They have both gone to Shanghai.

          (4) bothall都可用of結構,后面是名詞時,of可省略,但若后面是人稱代詞時,of不能省。例如:

          1All (of) my friends like riding.

          2All of them enjoyed the party.

          (5) 如動詞是否定的,一般不用all作主語,而往往以not all作主語。例如:

          Not all birds can fly.

          (6) all用于表示“全體”時,謂語動詞用單數。例如:

          All that I own is yours.

          7. oneones

          (1) one用來代替單數可數名詞,ones用來代替復數可數名詞,以避免重復。例如:

          1Im looking for a flat. Id like one with a garden.

          2The new designs are much better than the old ones.

          注:oneones用于代替同一名稱的另一件或另一些東西。Itthey則代替同一名稱的同樣一件或一些東西。例如:

          1) Have you found the pen lost yesterday?Yes, I have found it.

          2) Is this your pen?No, it isnt. Mine is the one on the desk.

          (2) 通常不說my one (s), your one (s)等,而說mine, yours等。但如果one (s)前有形容詞,就可以和物主代詞連用,也常與冠詞連用。例如:

          1Your car isnt fast enough. Lets take mine.

          2Lets take your new one.

          3Id like a big one with cream on.

          (3) 在形容詞最高級以及this, that, either, neither等限定詞后面,one (s)可省略,而thesethose后面基本不用ones。例如:

          1I think my dog is the fastest (one).

          2Either (one) will suit me.

          (4) 在數詞后面,只有用了形容詞才能用ones。例如:

          I caught nine big ones.

      Ⅲ 形容詞和副詞

          一、形容詞和副詞的比較等級

          1.比較結構的基本形式

          形容詞和副詞的比較主要是通過asasmore than結構表現出來。例如:

          1John is more/less stupid than Bob (is).

          2George is as efficient a worker as Jack (is).

          3He behaves more/less politely than Tom (does).

          4He works as hard as his father (does).

          只有在進行不同性質的比較時,比較分句才以完整的句子形式出現。例如:

          He is as brave as he is quick-witted.

          (2) 比較結構之前可以用程度狀語加以修飾。如asas結構前可以用almost, nearly, just (about), quite或表示倍數的詞語修飾。例如:

          1This week has been almost as rainy as last week.

          2Brick houses are nearly as common as wood houses.

          3Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.

          4My command of English is not half so (as) good as yours.

          (3) more than結構之前可以用 (so) very much, (quite) a lot, a great deal, (just) a bit, still, far, somewhat, still, far或表示倍數的詞語修飾。例如:

          1This job is so much harder than my last one that Ive decided to quit.

          2Milk is a lot more nutritious than beer.

          3The new method was over ten times more efficient than the traditional one.

          4Our income was 43.5 per cent greater than in 1996.

          2. 比較結構中名詞的位置

          當比較結構與名詞搭配時,名詞可能有三種位置:

          (1) 可以將名詞置于比較結構中間,也可將比較結構作后置修飾語置于名詞之后。如asas結構或more than結構與單數可數名詞或不可數名詞搭配:

          1I cant drink as a sweet coffee as this.

          2I cant drink coffee as sweet as this.

          (2) 當比較結構中的more, less等詞為限定詞時,或者當as manyas與復數可數名詞搭配以及as muchas與不可數名詞搭配時,或者當as much of aas, more/less of athan等結構與單數可數名詞搭配時,名詞只能置于比較結構中間。例如:

          1There is much less difficulty than I thought.

          2He is more of a sportsman than his brother.

          as many asas much as也能單獨使用,這時many是代詞,much或是代詞或是副詞。例如:

          1I ate as much as I could.

          2He didnt catch as many as hed hoped.

          (3) asas結構與復數可數名詞搭配以及more than結構與不同類別的單復數可數名詞搭配,或者受其他修飾語的限制時,這類比較結構通常置于所修飾的名詞之后。例如:

          1He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.

          2Here are men more intelligent than Mary.

          3.幾個比較結構的用法區別

          (1) more than結構的不同用法與意義:在一般用法中,比較級可以采用在形容詞或副詞前加more的形式,也可以采取形容詞或副詞(單音節詞和少數雙音節詞)加詞尾er的形式。當morethan作“與其…不如…”解釋時,比較級只能用加more的形式,不能用加詞尾er的形式。 這種用法也適用于lessthan(不…而是…)結構。例如:

          1He is more good than bad.

          2He was less hurt than frightened. (他受的傷不重,而是被嚇得厲害。)

          (2) not soasnot so muchas的用法比較。試看下面兩例:

          1London isnt so large as Tokyo.

          2It wasnt so much his appearance I liked as his personality.

          (3) notnomore than的連用比較。試看以下兩例:

          1John is not better than Tom.

          2John is no better than Tom.

          前一例是一般的比較結構,后一例就不同了,no better than相當于as bad as, 含義是兩人一樣壞。這里“no +形容詞”或“副詞比較級+ than”所表示的可以說是該形容詞或副詞的相反含義。又如:

          no richer than = as poor as    no bigger than = as small as

          在某些結構中,單獨使用more than也能表示否定概念。例如:

          That is more than I can tell.

          此時含義是“簡直不…”。又如:

          My trip to Beijing is more than sightseeing.

          此時含義是“不僅僅是游覽觀光”。

          4.有比較含義的形容詞的固定搭配

          在英語中,有些形容詞本身就含有比較含義,有著自己的固定搭配,其后接介詞to,不能接than,這類形容詞有junior, senior, inferior, superior, anterior, posterior等。例如:

          1In some ways, train travel is superior to air travel.

          2He is intellectually inferior to his brother.

          5.形容詞的比較級句型舉例

          (1) more and more (越來越…)。例如:

          1Its becoming more and more difficult to find a job.

          2These days more and more people are learning English.

          (2) the morethe more (越是…就越)。例如:

          1The more they talked, the more encouraged they felt.

          2The busier he is, the happier he feels.

          (3) more or less (大體上,或多或少)。例如:

          1The question is more or less settled.

          2Weve succeeded in the first stage, more or less.

          (4) more (less) than (不止,不到)。例如:

          1Its more than ten years since we parted.

          2They raised yields from less than 400 tons to more than 800 tons.

          6.形容詞最高級的用法要點

          (1) 形容詞的最高級在使用時,前面通常要加定冠詞,并有一個短語或從句表示在哪個范圍內情況如此。例如:

          1The Yangtze is the biggest river in our country.

          2That was the most delicious meal Ive ever had.

          有時在形容詞最高級前可以有一個狀語或定語。例如:

          1She is by far the most active member in our group.

          2Its becoming the third largest industrial city in the province.

          (2) 形容詞最高級有時表示“非常…”的意思,這時前面可加不定冠詞或不加冠詞。例如:

          1It is a most (= very) touching story.

          2The book you lent me was most interesting (= very interesting).

          (3) 如果形容詞最高級前有物主代詞,就不需再加定冠詞了。例如:

          1Tuesday is our busiest day.

          2Fishing is his latest hobby.

          形容詞最高級還可用于at ones…這種短語中。例如:

          1The peony was at its best. (牡丹花開得正盛。)

          2I knew her tone, I knew she was at her worst. (我聽得出她的語氣,知道她這時候心情最不好。)

          二、形容詞和副詞的位置

          1.形容詞在句中的位置

          (1) 如果同時有幾個形容詞出現在名詞中心詞之前,一般是較長的形容詞置于最后。例如:

          It was a rainy, windy, unpleasant day.

          (2) 當名詞中心詞之前出現幾個形容詞作修飾語時,一般按下列詞序排列:限定詞→描繪形容詞→表示大小、新舊的形容詞→表示顏色的形容詞→表示類別的形容詞→表示類別的名詞(作修飾語)→名詞中心詞;如果出現一個以上的限定詞,通常是表示特指或泛指的限定詞在前,表示數量的限定詞在后。例如:

          the English church

          the old English church

          the charming English church

          the towns charming English church

          the mans first two interesting little red French oil paintings

          (3) 形容詞也能作后置修飾語,如在由some, any, no等構成的合成詞之后。另外,當形容詞本身帶有不定式、介詞詞組等構成形容詞詞組的組成部分時,通常置于被修飾的名詞中心詞之后。例如:

          1Students brave enough to take the course deserve to succeed.

          2He is a man deserving of sympathy.

          (4) 也有在形容詞詞組中將形容詞與其他成分拆開的情況,即將形容詞置于名詞中心詞之前,而將形容詞詞組的其余部分置于名詞中心詞之后。這主要見于形容詞詞組中心詞為different, similar, easy, difficult, impossible時,或者形容詞為比較級或最高級形式時。例如:

          a different book from this one

          a difficult problem to solve

          the best summering place in the world

          (5) 凡能作后置修飾語的形容詞或形容詞詞組,其含義往往相當于一個關系分句。例如:

          the members present = the members who are present

          anything interesting = anything that is interesting

          (6) 在下列結構中,形容詞必須與其所修飾的名詞中心詞拆開,移至不定冠詞之前。例如:

          1It was as pleasant a day as I have ever spent.

          2It was so warm a day that we decided to go to the sea.

          3She is too kind a girl to refuse.

          (7) enough作為名詞修飾詞時,既可置于名詞中心詞之前,又可置于其后。但當它用來修飾形容詞或副詞時,只能置于中心詞之后。例如:

          1There is enough food for all the people here.

          2There is food enough for all the people here.

          3He is old enough to make decisions by himself.

          2. 副詞在句中的位置

          (1) 副詞大都可放在動詞后面,如果修飾及物動詞,一般放在賓語后面。例如:

          1I remember having seen him somewhere.

          2She didnt do it intentionally.

          3You shouldnt stay up too late.

          (2) 頻度副詞通常放在動詞前面,但若句子里有情態動詞、助動詞或動詞to be, 就放在這類動詞(第一個)的后面。例如:

          1He sometimes goes there on business.

          2I hardly ever heard him singing.

          3You must always bear this in mind.

          4She is seldom ill.

          (3) 還有一些副詞,如already, (not) yet, once, nearly, almost, just, really, suddenly, certainly, still, soon, surely等用法同(2)。例如:

          1I almost forgot about the whole thing.

          2She suddenly fell ill.

          3You must really be careful.

          4This is the telegram weve just received.

          (4) 疑問副詞、連接副詞、關系副詞和一些說明整個句子的副詞(例如actually, fortunately, unfortunately, evidently, accordingly, of course, first, at first, secondly, perhaps, probably, certainly, surely, originally, maybe等),通常都放在句子(或從句)的開頭。例如:

          1Actually I still remember the day when we first met.

          2Maybe youre right.

          3Certainly we should try our best to help them.

          4First we must get the farm tools ready.

          (5) 有時為了對動作發生的時間更強調一些,有些時間副詞如yesterday, tomorrow, last night, up to now, just now, finally, at last, now, soon, once, occasionally, usually, sometimes等,也可放在句首。例如:

          1Usually we dont go out in such weather.

          2Soon you will regret it.

          (6) 程度副詞一般都放在它所修飾的詞前面。例如:

          1This textbook is definitely more suitable for us than the other one.

          2I dont quite agree with you.

          (7) 有少數副詞在句子里位置很靈活,常放在與它關系最密切的詞前,如only, even, perhaps, exactly, soon, still等。這些副詞位置的改變,在句子的意思上并不引起多大的變化。例如:

       

          Perhaps you are right. = You are perhaps right. = You are right perhaps.


      生詞表:
    4. riches [´rit?iz] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.房地產;豐富   (初中英語單詞)
    5. invention [in´ven??n] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.創造;發明;虛構   (初中英語單詞)
    6. working [´w?:ki?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.工人的;勞動的   (初中英語單詞)
    7. performance [p?´f?:m?ns] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.履行;行為;工作   (初中英語單詞)
    8. traffic [´tr?fik] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.交通,運輸   (初中英語單詞)
    9. puzzle [´p?zl] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.迷(惑) v.(使)迷惑   (初中英語單詞)
    10. holiday [´h?lidi] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.假日,假期,節日   (初中英語單詞)
    11. research [ri´s?:t?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.&vi.調查;探究;研究   (初中英語單詞)
    12. manager [´m?nid??] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.經理;管理人;干事   (初中英語單詞)
    13. perish [´peri?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  v.滅亡;消滅;(使)死去   (初中英語單詞)
    14. restaurant [´rest?r?nt] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.飯店,菜館   (初中英語單詞)
    15. discussion [di´sk???n] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.討論;辯論   (初中英語單詞)
    16. cultural [´k?lt??r?l] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.文化(上)的;教養的   (初中英語單詞)
    17. harmony [´hɑ:m?ni] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.調合,協調,和諧   (初中英語單詞)
    18. selfish [´selfi?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.自私的,利己的   (初中英語單詞)
    19. energy [´en?d?i] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.活力,精力;能力   (初中英語單詞)
    20. player [´plei?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.游戲的人;選手   (初中英語單詞)
    21. capable [´keip?b?l] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.有能力;能干的   (初中英語單詞)
    22. stupid [´stju:pid] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.愚蠢的;糊涂的   (初中英語單詞)
    23. worker [´w?:k?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.工人;勞動者;工作者   (初中英語單詞)
    24. expensive [ik´spensiv] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.費錢的,昂貴的   (初中英語單詞)
    25. income [´ink?m] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.收入,所得   (初中英語單詞)
    26. sportsman [´sp?:tsm?n] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.運動員;好運動的人   (初中英語單詞)
    27. intelligent [in´telid??nt] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.聰明的;理智的   (初中英語單詞)
    28. learning [´l?:ni?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.學習;學問;知識   (初中英語單詞)
    29. delicious [di´li??s] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.美味的,可口的   (初中英語單詞)
    30. industrial [in´d?stri?l] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.工業的,產業的   (初中英語單詞)
    31. charming [´t?ɑ:mi?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.可愛的;極好的   (初中英語單詞)
    32. deserve [di´z?:v] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  v.應受;值得   (初中英語單詞)
    33. telegram [´teligr?m] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.電報   (初中英語單詞)
    34. evidently [´evid?ntli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.明顯地   (初中英語單詞)
    35. accordingly [?´k?:di?li] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.因此;從而;依照   (初中英語單詞)
    36. occasionally [?´kei??n?li] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.偶然地;非經常地   (初中英語單詞)
    37. definitely [´definitli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.明確地;絕對   (初中英語單詞)
    38. suitable [´su:t?b?l, ´sju:-] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.合適的,適當的   (初中英語單詞)
    39. trainer [´trein?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.訓練員,教(練)員   (高中英語單詞)
    40. patriotic [,p?tri´?tik] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.愛國的   (高中英語單詞)
    41. tomato [t?´mɑ:t?u] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.西紅柿,蕃茄   (高中英語單詞)
    42. socialist [´s?u??list] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.社會主義者   (高中英語單詞)
    43. efficient [i´fi??nt] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.有效的,有能力的   (高中英語單詞)
    44. politely [p?´laitli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.溫和地;文雅地   (高中英語單詞)
    45. decided [di´saidid] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.明顯的;決定的   (高中英語單詞)
    46. senior [´si:ni?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.年長的 n.前輩   (高中英語單詞)
    47. inferior [in´fi?ri?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.下級的 n.下級;晚輩   (高中英語單詞)
    48. unpleasant [?n´plez?nt] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.不愉快的;不合意的   (高中英語單詞)
    49. fortunately [´f?:t??n?tli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.幸運地   (高中英語單詞)
    50. unfortunately [?n´f?:t?unitli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.不幸;不朽;可惜   (高中英語單詞)
    51. originally [?´rid??n?li] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  ad.本來;獨創地   (高中英語單詞)
    52. economics [i:k?´n?miks, i:,-] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.經濟學   (英語四級單詞)
    53. magnetic [m?g´netik] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.磁(性)的   (英語四級單詞)
    54. traditional [tr?´di??n?l] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.傳統的,習慣的   (英語四級單詞)
    55. yangtze [´j??tsi:] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  n.長江   (英語四級單詞)
    56. touching [´t?t?i?] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.動人的 prep.提到   (英語四級單詞)
    57. secondly [´sek?ndli] 移動到這兒單詞發聲  a.第二(點);其次   (英語六級單詞)



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